Cost Accounting Chapter 10 Flashcards – MMISU

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Cost Accounting Chapter 10 Flashcards

The Relevant Range and Nonlinear Costs

Quantitative analysis of current or past cost relationships. Learn the profit maximization definition, its importance, and explore the profit maximization theory. See how to calculate profit maximization with examples. Explore relevant and irrelevant costs. Study the definitions and types of relevant and irrelevant costs, and discover examples of relevant costs in decision-making. Learn about Porter’s Five Forces model.

• Efficiency and productivity hold steady within the relevant range. • The behavior of costs (cont.) – The traditional definition of variable costs assumes that a linear relationship exists between costs and the measure of capacity chosen. – Many costs vary with operating activity in a nonlinear fashion; this cost behavior can be approximated within the relevant range using linear approximation.

  • The cost function measures the minimum cost of producing a given level of output for some fixed factor prices.
  • A cost function is a formula used to predict the cost that will be experienced at a certain activity level.
  • However, Susan also made Eric aware that Bikes Unlimited was quickly approaching full capacity.
  • A nonlinear cost function is a cost function where, within the relevant range, the graph of total costs versus the level of a single activity related to that cost is not a straight line.
  • Learn the stats needed to use this formula and make adjustments based on results.
  • The scattergraph method considers all data points, not just the highest and lowest levels of activity.

(cont.) – When performing their duties, managers use cost behavior to determine the impact of their decisions on operating income. – When evaluating and reporting on performance, managers analyze how changes in costs and sales affect profitability. There are a number of costs that vary or change, but if the variation is not due to volume changes, it is not considered to be a variable cost. Examples of variable costs are direct materials and direct labor. These are linear because of the assumptions of constant costs and prices, and there is no distinction between units produced and units sold, as these are assumed to be equal.

Breakeven Analysis Assumes That Over The Relevant Range: A Unit Revenues Are Nonlinear B

The distance OD represents the firms fixed costs of production and the difference between this and line DAF represents the firm’s total variable costs of production. The break-even point of the business corresponds to point A. It implies that if the firm produces and sells XB of its product, it just breaks even in the circumstances illustrated. If it sells and produces more, it makes a profit, if less a loss.

  • Regression analysis is similar to the scattergraph approach in that both fit a straight line to a set of data points to estimate fixed and variable costs.
  • A linear cost function is a cost function where, within the relevant range, the graph of total costs versus the level of a single activity forms a straight line.
  • If the business is operating at a volume above the break-even point volume , then the $5 is a contribution (on a per-unit basis) to additional profits.
  • Cost functions are descriptions of how a cost (e.g., material, labor, or overhead) changes with changes in the level of activity relating to that cost.
  • If the cost function is linear, variable cost increases at a constant rate.

Note that we are identifying the high and low activity levels rather than the high and low dollar levels—choosing the high and low dollar levels can result in incorrect high and low points. Organizations often view fixed costs as either committed or discretionary. J Note that A is incorrect because, although the cost per pound eventually equals a constant at $9, the total dollars of cost increases linearly from that point onward. 10-9 Causality in a cost function runs from the cost driver to the dependent variable. Thus, choosing the highest observation and the lowest observation of the cost driver is appropriate in the high-low method. Step 3 typically is the most difficult for a cost analyst.


It is where the business achieves normal profit but not economical profit. It is depicted graphically as the point where a firm’s total cost and total revenue curves intersect. This is the sales point where total costs are covered by the sales volume for the relevant range. If the break-even point is not achieved, that business will or should go out of business. Cost classification into variable and fixed costs is based on qualitative, rather than quantitative, analysis. How good the classifications are depends on the knowledge of individual managers who classify the costs. Gower may want to undertake quantitative analysis of costs, using regression analysis on time-series or cross-sectional data to better estimate the fixed and variable components of costs.

  • Break-even refers to the condition of equality between total revenue and total costs.
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  • Direct materials in stock and awaiting use in the manufacturing process.
  • Cost behavior is adequately approximated by a linear function within the relevant range.
  • The analysis is restricted to the relevant range specified and beyond that the results can become unreliable.

Although total fixed costs are the same, fixed costs per unit changes as fewer or more units are produced. Straight‐line depreciation is an example of a fixed cost. Choice of Cost Object Example If the total cost to operate all taxis owned by a taxi company is the cost object, annual taxi registration and license fees would be variable costs .

Cost Function

We will break down the most important… Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have.

It is considered to be the point where the business has made normal profit but not economical profit. In other words; the business has made enough profits to cover the total costs. Changes in the level of revenues and costs arise only because of changes in the number of product units sold. We have noted that if the cost function is linear, the equation used in preparing the total cost curve in Fig. But the quadratic cost func­tion has one bend – one bend less than the highest exponent of Q.

All costs of a product that are considered as assets in the balance sheet when they are incurred and that become COGS only when the product is sold. Costs are fixed or variable only w/ respect to a specific activity or a given time period.

  • Sensitivity analysis is a “what-if” technique that managers use to examine how an outcome will change if the original predicted data are not achieved or if an underlying assumption changes.
  • Now it is possible to estimate total production costs given a certain level of production .
  • Costs may behave nonlinear outside the range.
  • Band of normal activity level in which there is a specific relationship between level of activity and a given cost.
  • If sales were expected to increase in the future, the company would have to increase capacity, and cost estimates would have to be revised.
  • Cost functions may come in various forms.

A break-even chart is one in which sales revenue, variable costs, and fixed costs are plotted on the vertical axis while volume is plotted on the horizontal axis. The Break-Even Point is the point at which the total sales revenue line intersects the total cost line. It can be seen that it is important to separate variable and fixed costs. Some of the total manufacturing cost per unit of a product may be fixed, and, hence, will not differ between the make and buy alternatives. These fixed costs are irrelevant to the make-or-buy decision. Furthermore, managers should consider nonfinancial factors such as quality and timely delivery when making outsourcing decisions.

Measures The Decline In The Cost Per Unit Of These Various Business Functions As The Amount Of Activities Increases

In many cases, the total costs will included a fix cost that will not change despite changes in the number of units. Plot provides insight into relevant range of cost functions. & reveals whether the relationship between driver and cost is approx. Total fixed costs are nonlinear. A fixed cost remains constant or does not vary with the output of an organization.

The Relevant Range and Nonlinear Costs

If sales were expected to increase in the future, the company would have to increase capacity, and cost estimates would have to be revised. • The behavior of costs (cont.) – Fixed costs are total costs that remain constant within a relevant range of volume or activity. Fixed unit costs vary inversely with changes in activity or volume. – Mixed costs have both variable and fixed cost components.

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In short, the cubic cost curve has two bends, one bend less than the highest exponent of Q. Measues the percentage of variation in a dependent variable explained by one or more independent variables. Recall that the slope of the line represents the unit cost; thus, when the unit cost increases, so does the slope.

Perhaps we get a discount after we purchase 100 components, at which time the cost of direct material will drop to .80 per widget. With variable costs then, the relevant range will be the range where the cost of adding one more, will be the same as the last. In this example, from widgets, each additional widget will add $1 in cost to our direct materials. Once we go above 100, we are outside of the relevant range. • Contribution margin income statements – A contribution margin income statement is formatted to emphasize cost behavior rather than organizational functions. – Contribution margin is the amount that remains after all variable costs are subtracted from sales.

A total of 30,000 units were sold in March. The following data pertain to W Company’s two… Karlik Enterprises distributes a single product…

The Relevant Range and Nonlinear Costs

Some of the machines are provided facilitating devices like jigs and fixtures to increase production. As a result of improved efficiency, unit costs decrease as output increases. This effect is nonlinear and in cost estimating for future this effect needs to be considered.

$8,000 is called a constant or intercept. The slope of the cost function is zero. Please be advised that you will be liable for damages (including costs and attorneys’ fees) if you materially misrepresent that a product or activity is infringing your copyrights. Thus, if you are not sure content located on or linked-to by the Website infringes your copyright, you should consider first contacting an attorney.

What Is Cost Behavior Analysis?

• Engineering method – Separates costs by performing step-by-step analysis of tasks, costs and processes involved. – Also called a time and motion study. In multi-product companies, it assumes that the relative proportions of each product sold and produced are constant (i.e., the sales mix is constant). Break-even analysis The Relevant Range and Nonlinear Costs is only a supply side (i.e. costs only) analysis, as it tells you nothing about what sales are actually likely to be for the product at these various prices. Total cost increases to a Total cost increases to a new higher cost for the new higher cost for the next higher range of next higher range of activity.

Choosing The Correct Cost Driver To Estimate Indirect Manufacturing Labor Is Important Because

Breakeven analysis assumes over the relevant range that A. If the company produces more units each month, workers gain experience resulting in improved efficiency, and the per unit cost decreases . This causes the total cost line to flatten out a bit as the slope decreases.

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